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title: 'Introduction to Bioinformatics with R and Bioconductor'
author: "Thomas Schwarzl"
date: "26/3/2019"
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## Welcome
<div class="midcenter" style="margin-left:-300px; margin-top:-200px;"><img src="img/Wikipedia_welcome_committee_topicon_graphic.PNG" width="600"></img></div>
## About me - Thomas Schwarzl
<img src="img/Thomas_Schwarzl.jpeg" height=150></img>
Positions | Locations
----------------------------------------- | -----------------------------
Chemical enigneer | HTL17 Vienna (Austria)
BSc in Bioinformatics | FH Hagenberg (Austria)
PhD in Bioinformatics and Systems Biology | UCD Dublin (Ireland)
PostDoc in Hentze and Huber lab | EMBL Heidelberg (Germany)
Staff Scientist Hentze and Huber lab | EMBL Heidelberg (Germany)
## About the (other) trainers
<div><img src="img/FlorianHuber.jpg" class="portrait" />
Florian Huber<br />
<span class="subtext">EIPOD PostDoc in Typas and Beltrao groups</span></div>
<br class="clear" />
<div><img src="img/TheaVanRossum.jpg" class="portrait" />Thea Van Rossum<br /><span class="subtext">PostDoc in Bork group</span></div>
<br class="clear" />
<div><img src="img/BerndKlaus.png" class="portrait" />(Bernd Klaus)<br/>
<span class="subtext">previously Biostatistician at EMBL </span></div>
<br class="clear" />
## About the teaching assistents
<div><img src="img/CharlesGirardot.jpeg" class="portrait" />Charles Girardot<br /><span class="subtext">Head of Genome Biology Computational Support group</span></div>
<br class="clear" />
<div><img src="img/SudeepSahadevan.jpeg" class="portrait" />Sudeep Sahadevan<br /><span class="subtext">Bioinformatics Engineer in Hentze group</span></div>
<br class="clear" />
## About the course organizers
<div><img src="img/ElisabethZielonka.jpg" class="portrait" />Elisabeth Zielonka<br /><span class="subtext">Scientific Organiser</span></div>
<br class="clear" />
<div><img src="img/Luca-Ruse.jpg" class="portrait" />George Luca-Ruse<br /><span class="subtext">Course Organiser</span></div>
<br class="clear" />
## What is bioinformatics
> - Data preprocessing
> - Exploration
> - Statistical analysis
> - Visualisation
## Course program
> - *Monday* - R refresher / Data processing
> - *Tuesday* - Data processing Visualisation and Exploration
> - *Wednesday* - Hypothesis testing and Statistical analyses
> - *Thursday* - Applied analyses
## Exact program and house rules
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title: "Introduction to _Bioconductor_"
author: "Thomas Schwarzl adapted from Valerie Obenchain (valerie.obenchain@roswellpark.org)<br />
Lori Shepherd (lori.shepherd@roswellpark.org)<br />
Martin Morgan (martin.morgan@roswellpark.org)<br />
Stanford University, Stanford, CA"
theme: paper
```{r style, echo = FALSE, results = 'asis'}
options(width=100, max.print=1000)
eval=as.logical(Sys.getenv("KNITR_EVAL", "TRUE")),
cache=as.logical(Sys.getenv("KNITR_CACHE", "TRUE")))
```{r packages, eval=TRUE, echo=FALSE, warning=FALSE, message=FALSE}
# _Bioconductor_
### Physically
- Collection of 1211 software, 916 annotation and 293 experimental
data R packages.
- Web site (http://bioconductor.org) for package distribution and
other resources.
- Support site (https://support.bioconductor.org) for user questions.
# _Bioconductor_
### Conceptually
- Analysis and comprehension of high throughput genomic data
# Core principles: Volume of data
### Type of research question
- Designed experiments
- Population samples
- ...
# Core principles: Volume of data
### Technological artifacts
- Differences in sequencing depth between samples
- Bias in the genomic regions sampled
# Reproducibility
- Cisplatin-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer gene sets
- Hsu et al. 2007 J Clin Oncol 25:
# Reproducibility
- Baggerly & Coombes 2009 Ann Appl Stat
[3: 1309-1334](http://projecteuclid.org/DPubS?service=UI&version=1.0&verb=Display&handle=euclid.aoas/1267453942)
# Lessons
- Record each step of the analysis
- Coordinated manipulation of feature, sample, and assay data
- Informative labels on visualizations
# How to be reproducible?
- Use software 'objects' that take care of some of the tedious
- Document our analysis in scripts and 'markdown' documents
# Example: `SummarizedExperiment`
# Example: `SummarizedExperiment`
Underlying data is a matrix
- Regions of interest (e.g., genes) x samples
- `assay()` -- e.g., matrix of counts of reads overlapping genes
# Example: `SummarizedExperiment`
Include information about rows
- `rowRanges()` -- gene identifiers, or _genomic ranges_ describing
the coordinates of each gene
# Example: `SummarizedExperiment`
Include information about columns
- `colData()` -- describing samples, experimental design, ...
# Example: `SummarizedExperiment`
```{r airway-SummarizedExperiment, eval=F}
library(airway) # An 'ExperimentData' package...
data(airway) # ...with a sample data set...
airway # ...that is a SummarizedExperiment
head(assay(airway)) # contains a matrix of counts
head(rowRanges(airway)) # information about the genes...
colData(airway)[, 1:3] # ...and samples
## coordinated subsetting
untrt <- airway[, airway$dex == 'untrt']
colData(untrt)[, 1:3]
# Packages!
- Discover and navigate via [biocViews][]
- Package 'landing page'
- Title, author / maintainer, short description, citation,
installation instructions, ..., download statistics
- All user-visible functions have help pages, most with runnable
- 'Vignettes' an important feature in Bioconductor -- narrative
documents illustrating how to use the package, with integrated code
- 'Workflows' make use of multiple packages for complete end-to-end
- 'Release' (every six months) and 'devel' branches
- [Support site](https://support.bioconductor.org);
[videos](https://www.youtube.com/user/bioconductor), [recent
# Visualization
Inter-operability between packages made easier by using similar data structures
Examples (details later)
- `SummarizedExperiment`
- `DNAStringSet`
- `GenomicRanges`
# Comprehension is more than statistical analysis
### Annotation
- Mapping from technical to user-friendly identifiers
- Assigning genes to pathways
- Placing our results in the context of large-scale analyses
# Comprehension is more than statistical analysis
### Objects
- Represent complicated data types
- Foster interoperability
- S4 object system
- Introspection: `methods()`, `getClass()`, `selectMethod()`
- 'accessors' and other documented functions / methods for
manipulation, rather than direct access to the object structure
- Interactive help
- `method?"substr,<tab>"` to select help on methods, `class?D<tab>`
for help on classes
# A sequence analysis package tour
![Alt Sequencing Ecosystem](our_figures/SequencingEcosystem.png)
# BiocViews
- Bioconductor packages are listed on the [biocViews][] page.
- tags from a controlled vocabulary
# Landing page
'landing page', e.g., for
- description, authors, and installation instructions.
- references to scientific literature
- vignettes and reference manual
- indication of cross-platform availability
- download statistics.
# Installation
A package needs to be installed once, using the instructions on the
landing page. Once installed, the package can be loaded into an R
```{r require}
and the help system queried interactively, as outlined above:
```{r help, eval=FALSE}
vignette(package="GenomicRanges", "GenomicRangesHOWTOs")
# Types of Packages
Now examples for popular packages for high-throughput analyses
# Differential expression
- Important packages for analysis of differential expression include
[edgeR][] and [DESeq2][]; both have excellent vignettes for
exploration. Additional research methods embodied in Bioconductor
packages can be discovered by visiting the [biocViews][] web page,
searching for the 'DifferentialExpression' view term, and narrowing
the selection by searching for 'RNA seq' and similar.
# ChIP-seq
- Popular ChIP-seq packages include [csaw][] an d[DiffBind][] for
comparison of peaks across samples, [ChIPQC][] for quality
assessment, and [ChIPseeker][] for annotating results (e.g.,
discovering nearby genes). What other ChIP-seq packages are listed
on the [biocViews][] page?
# Variants
- Working with called variants (VCF files) is facilitated by packages
such as [VariantAnnotation][], [VariantFiltering][], [ensemblVEP][],
and [SomaticSignatures][]; packages for calling variants include,
e.g., [h5vc][] and [VariantTools][].
# Copy number variants
- Several packages identify copy number variants from sequence data,
including [cn.mops][]; from the [biocViews][] page, what other copy
number packages are available? The [CNTools][] package provides some
useful facilities for comparison of segments across samples.
# Microbiome and Metagenomic analysis
- Microbiome and metagenomic analysis is facilitated by packages such
as [phyloseq][] and [metagenomeSeq][].
# Metabolomics, Chemoinformatics, Image analysis
- Metabolomics, chemoinformatics, image analysis, and many other
high-throughput analysis domains are also represented in
Bioconductor; explore these via biocViews and title searches.
# Genomic Ranges
Working with sequences, alignments, common web file formats, and raw
data; these packages rely very heavily on the [IRanges][] /
[GenomicRanges][] infrastructure that we will encounter later in the
# Sequences
- The [Biostrings][] package is used to represent DNA and other
sequences, with many convenient sequence-related functions. Check
out the functions documented on the help page `?consensusMatrix`,
for instance. Also check out the [BSgenome][] package for working
with whole genome sequences, e.g., `?"getSeq,BSgenome-method"`
# Alignments
- The [GenomicAlignments][] package is used to input reads aligned to
a reference genome. See for instance the `?readGAlignments` help
page and `vigentte(package="GenomicAlignments",
- [rtracklayer][]'s `import` and `export` functions can read in many
common file types, e.g., BED, WIG, GTF, ..., in addition to querying
and navigating the UCSC genome browser. Check out the `?import` page
for basic usage.
- The [ShortRead][] and [Rsamtools][] packages can be used for
lower-level access to FASTQ and BAM files, respectively. Explore the
[ShortRead vignette](http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/vignettes/ShortRead/inst/doc/Overview.pdf)
and Scalable Genomics labs to see approaches to effectively
processing the large files.
# Visualization
- The [Gviz][] package provides great tools for visualizing local
genomic coordinates and associated data.
- [epivizr][] drives the [epiviz](http://epiviz.cbcb.umd.edu/) genome
browser from within R; [rtracklayer][] provides easy ways to
transfer data to and manipulate UCSC browser sessions.
- Additionl packages include [ggbio][], [OmicCircos][], ...
# DNA or amino acid sequences
_Biostrings_, _ShortRead_, _BSgenome_
# Classes
- XString, XStringSet, e.g., DNAString (genomes),
DNAStringSet (reads)
# Methods
- [Cheat sheat](http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/vignettes/Biostrings/inst/doc/BiostringsQuickOverview.pdf)
- Manipulation, e.g., `reverseComplement()`
- Summary, e.g., `letterFrequency()`
- Matching, e.g., `matchPDict()`, `matchPWM()`
# Related packages
- [BSgenome][]
- Whole-genome representations
- Model and custom
- [ShortRead][]
- FASTQ files
# Example
- Whole-genome sequences are distrubuted by ENSEMBL, NCBI, and others
as FASTA files; model organism whole genome sequences are packaged
into more user-friendly `BSgenome` packages. The following
calculates GC content across chr14.
```{r BSgenome-require, message=FALSE}
chr14_range = GRanges("chr14", IRanges(1, seqlengths(Hsapiens)["chr14"]))
chr14_dna <- getSeq(Hsapiens, chr14_range)
letterFrequency(chr14_dna, "GC", as.prob=TRUE)
# Ranges: _GenomicRanges_, _IRanges_
Ranges represent:
- Data, e.g., aligned reads, ChIP peaks, SNPs, CpG islands, ...
- Annotations, e.g., gene models, regulatory elements, methylated
- Ranges are defined by chromosome, start, end, and strand
- Often, metadata is associated with each range, e.g., quality of
alignment, strength of ChIP peak
Many common biological questions are range-based
- What reads overlap genes?
- What genes are ChIP peaks nearest?
- ...
# GenomicRanges
The [GenomicRanges][] package defines essential classes and methods
### `GRanges`
![Alt ](our_figures/GRanges.png)
# GenomicRanges
### `GRangesList`
![Alt ](our_figures/GRangesList.png)
# GenomicRanges
### Range operations
![Alt Ranges Algebra](our_figures/RangeOperations.png)
# Ranges
- IRanges
- `start()` / `end()` / `width()`
- List-like -- `length()`, subset, etc.
- 'metadata', `mcols()`
- GRanges
- 'seqnames' (chromosome), 'strand'
- `Seqinfo`, including `seqlevels` and `seqlengths`
# Intra-range methods
- Independent of other ranges in the same object
- GRanges variants strand-aware
- `shift()`, `narrow()`, `flank()`, `promoters()`, `resize()`,
`restrict()`, `trim()`
- See `?"intra-range-methods"`
# Inter-range methods
- Depends on other ranges in the same object
- `range()`, `reduce()`, `gaps()`, `disjoin()`
- `coverage()` (!)
- see `?"inter-range-methods"`
# Between-range methods
- Functions of two (or more) range objects
- `findOverlaps()`, `countOverlaps()`, ..., `%over%`, `%within%`,
`%outside%`; `union()`, `intersect()`, `setdiff()`, `punion()`,
`pintersect()`, `psetdiff()`
# Example
```{r ranges, message=FALSE, eval=F}
gr <- GRanges("A", IRanges(c(10, 20, 22), width=5), "+")
shift(gr, 1) # 1-based coordinates!
range(gr) # intra-range
reduce(gr) # inter-range
setdiff(range(gr), gr) # 'introns'
# IRangesList, GRangesList
- List: all elements of the same type
- Many *List-aware methods, but a common 'trick': apply a vectorized
function to the unlisted representaion, then re-list
grl <- GRangesList(...)
orig_gr <- unlist(grl)
transformed_gr <- FUN(orig)
transformed_grl <- relist(, grl)
# Aligned reads: _GenomicAlignments_, _Rsamtools_
Classes -- GenomicRanges-like behaivor
- GAlignments, GAlignmentPairs, GAlignmentsList
- SummarizedExperiment
- Matrix where rows are indexed by genomic ranges, columns by a
- `readGAlignments()`, `readGAlignmentsList()`
- Easy to restrict input, iterate in chunks
- `summarizeOverlaps()`
# Example
- Find reads supporting the junction identified above, at position
19653707 + 66M = 19653773 of chromosome 14
```{r bam-require, eval=F}
## our 'region of interest'
roi <- GRanges("chr14", IRanges(19653773, width=1))
## sample data
bf <- BamFile(RNAseqData.HNRNPC.bam.chr14_BAMFILES[[1]], asMates=TRUE)
## alignments, junctions, overlapping our roi
paln <- readGAlignmentsList(bf)
j <- summarizeJunctions(paln, with.revmap=TRUE)
j_overlap <- j[j %over% roi]
## supporting reads
# Called variants: _VariantAnnotation_, _VariantFiltering_
Classes -- GenomicRanges-like behavior
- VCF -- 'wide'
- VRanges -- 'tall'
Functions and methods
- I/O and filtering: `readVcf()`, `readGeno()`, `readInfo()`,
`readGT()`, `writeVcf()`, `filterVcf()`
- Annotation: `locateVariants()` (variants overlapping ranges),
`predictCoding()`, `summarizeVariants()`
- SNPs: `genotypeToSnpMatrix()`, `snpSummary()`
# Example
- Read variants from a VCF file, and annotate with respect to a known
gene model
```{r vcf, message=FALSE}
## input variants
fl <- system.file("extdata", "chr22.vcf.gz", package="VariantAnnotation")
vcf <- readVcf(fl, "hg19")
seqlevels(vcf) <- "chr22"
## known gene model
coding <- locateVariants(rowRanges(vcf),
# Related packages
- [ensemblVEP][]
- Forward variants to Ensembl Variant Effect Predictor
- [VariantTools][], [h5vc][]
- Call variants
- [VariantFiltering][]
- Filter variants using criteria such as coding consequence, MAF,
..., inheritance model
# Integrated data representations: _SummarizedExperiment_
- 'feature' x 'sample' `assays()`
- `colData()` data frame for desciption of samples
- `rowRanges()` _GRanges_ / _GRangeList_ or data frame for description
of features
- `exptData()` to describe the entire object
```{r SummarizedExperiment}
airway[, airway$dex %in% "trt"]
# Annotation: _org_, _TxDb_, _AnnotationHub_, _biomaRt_, ...
- _Bioconductor_ provides extensive access to 'annotation' resources
(see the [AnnotationData][] biocViews hierarchy); some interesting
examples to explore during this lab include:
- [biomaRt][], [PSICQUIC][], [KEGGREST][] and other packages for
querying on-line resources; each of these have informative vignettes.
- [AnnotationDbi][] is a cornerstone of the
[Annotation Data][AnnotationData] packages provided by Bioconductor.
- **org** packages (e.g., [org.Hs.eg.db][]) contain maps between
different gene identifiers, e.g., ENTREZ and SYMBOL. The basic
interface to these packages is described on the help page `?select`
- **TxDb** packages (e.g., [TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene][])
contain gene models (exon coordinates, exon / transcript
relationships, etc) derived from common sources such as the hg19
knownGene track of the UCSC genome browser. These packages can be
queried, e.g., as described on the `?exonsBy` page to retrieve all
exons grouped by gene or transcript.
- **BSgenome** packages (e.g., [BSgenome.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19][])
contain whole genomes of model organisms.
- [VariantAnnotation][] and [ensemblVEP][] provide access to sequence
annotation facilities, e.g., to identify coding variants; see the
[Introduction to VariantAnnotation](http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/bioc/vignettes/ShortRead/inst/doc/Overview.pdf)
vignette for a brief introduction.
- Take a quick look at the [annotation work
on the Bioconductor web site.
# Scalable computing
1. Efficient _R_ code
- Vectorize!
- Reuse others' work Know -- [DESeq2][], [GenomicRanges][],
[Biostrings][], [dplyr][], [data.table][], [Rcpp][]
2. Iteration
- Chunk-wise
- `open()`, read chunk(s), `close()`.
- e.g., `yieldSize` argument to `Rsamtools::BamFile()`
3. Restriction
- Limit to columns and / or rows of interest
- Exploit domain-specific formats, e.g., BAM files and
- Use a data base
4. Sampling
- Iterate through large data, retaining a manageable sample, e.g.,
5. Parallel evaluation
- **After** writing efficient code
- Typically, `lapply()`-like operations
- Cores on a single machine ('easy'); clusters (more tedious);
# Parallel evaluation in _Bioconductor_
- [BiocParallel][] -- `bplapply()` for `lapply()`-like functions,
increasingly used by package developers to provide easy, standard
way of gaining parallel evaluation.
- [GenomicFiles][] -- Framework for working on groups of files,
ranges, or ranges x files
- Bioconductor [AMI][] (Amazon Machine Instance) including
pre-configured StarCluster, and [docker] containers.
# Resources
_R_ / _Bioconductor_
- [Web site][Bioconductor] -- install, learn, use, develop _R_ /
_Bioconductor_ packages
- [Support](http://support.bioconductor.org) -- seek help and
guidance; also
[StackOverflow](http://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/r) for _R_
programming questions
- [biocViews](http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/BiocViews.html)
-- discover packages
- Package landing pages, e.g.,
including title, description, authors, installation instructions,
vignettes (e.g., GenomicRanges '[How
- [Course](http://bioconductor.org/help/course-materials/) and other
[help](http://bioconductor.org/help/) material (e.g., videos, EdX
course, community blogs, ...)
# Publications (General _Bioconductor_)
- Lawrence M, Huber W, Pag&egrave;s H, Aboyoun P, Carlson M, et al. (2013)
Software for Computing and Annotating Genomic Ranges. PLoS Comput
Biol 9(8): e1003118. doi:
- Lawrence, M, and Morgan, M. 2014. Scalable Genomics with R and
Bioconductor. Statistical Science 2014, Vol. 29, No. 2,
214-226. [http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.2864v1][Scalable.bib]
- Lawrence, M. 2014. Software for Enabling Genomic Data
Analysis. Bioc2014 conference [slides][Lawrence.bioc2014.bib].
<!-- Bibliography -->
[R]: http://r-project.org
[Bioconductor]: http://bioconductor.org
[GRanges.bib]: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003118
[Scalable.bib]: http://arxiv.org/abs/1409.2864
[AnnotationData]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/BiocViews.html#___AnnotationData
[biocViews]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/release/BiocViews.html#___Software
[AnnotationDbi]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/AnnotationDbi
[AnnotationHub]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/AnnotationHub
[BSgenome.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/BSgenome.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19
[BSgenome]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/BSgenome
[BiocParallel]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/BiocParallel
[Biostrings]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/Biostrings
[CNTools]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/CNTools
[ChIPQC]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/ChIPQC
[ChIPseeker]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/ChIPseeker
[DESeq2]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/DESeq2
[DiffBind]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/DiffBind
[GenomicAlignments]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/GenomicAlignments
[GenomicFiles]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/GenomicFiles
[GenomicRanges]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/GenomicRanges
[Homo.sapiens]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/Homo.sapiens
[IRanges]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/IRanges
[KEGGREST]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/KEGGREST
[PSICQUIC]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/PSICQUIC
[Rsamtools]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/Rsamtools
[Rsubread]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/Rsubread
[ShortRead]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/ShortRead
[SomaticSignatures]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/SomaticSignatures
[SummarizedExperiment]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/SummarizedExperiment
[TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg19.knownGene
[VariantAnnotation]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/VariantAnnotation
[VariantFiltering]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/VariantFiltering
[VariantTools]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/VariantTools
[biomaRt]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/biomaRt
[cn.mops]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/cn.mops
[csaw]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/csaw
[edgeR]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/edgeR
[ensemblVEP]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/ensemblVEP
[h5vc]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/h5vc
[limma]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/limma
[metagenomeSeq]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/metagenomeSeq
[org.Hs.eg.db]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/org.Hs.eg.db
[org.Sc.sgd.db]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/org.Sc.sgd.db
[phyloseq]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/phyloseq
[rtracklayer]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/rtracklayer
[snpStats]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/snpStats
[Gviz]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/Gviz
[epivizr]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/epivizr
[ggbio]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/ggbio
[OmicCircos]: http://bioconductor.org/packages/OmicCircos
[dplyr]: https://cran.r-project.org/package=dplyr
[data.table]: https://cran.r-project.org/package=data.table
[Rcpp]: https://cran.r-project.org/package=Rcpp
[AMI]: http://bioconductor.org/help/bioconductor-cloud-ami/
[docker]: http://bioconductor.org/help/docker/
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title: "Annotation"
author: "Thomas Schwarzl"
date: "29/3/2019"
output: html_document
supportedOrganisms() %>% filter(organism == "Homo sapiens")
src <- src_organism("TxDb.Hsapiens.UCSC.hg38.knownGene")
title: "RNASeq-Airway"
author: "Thomas Schwarzl"
date: "28/3/2019"
output: BioCStyle::html_document
if (!requireNamespace("BiocManager")) install.packages("BiocManager")
list.of.packages <- c("ggplot2", "Rcpp")
new.packages <- list.of.packages[!(list.of.packages %in% installed.packages()[,"Package"])]
if(length(new.packages)) install.packages(new.packages)